Wednesday, June 24, 2009

कविता का स्वरुप

Kavita Kya hai
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Dosto…aap sabhi ko Harash ka adaaab….. kaafi logoN ke aagreh per..aaj apna ek editorial ek thread me pesh kerna chahta hooN….Iss khoobsoorat Bazm meiN kutchh bhi dhaala jaaye woh kam hai….Kavita ke bare meiN jaankaari se muje umeed hai k sabhi kikritiyoN main sudhaar ka izafa zaroor hoga …..
MaiN iss mehfil meiN who sab daalne ki koshish kerooNga job hi aajtak maine apne GuruoN se paaya hai…..our jo khud bhi izaad kiya hai…..wese toh main likhne ya baataane wala aisa koi bhi hunar nahiN rakhta …lekin ache Gyaan-kertaoN ki soubat meiN reh ker our zer-e-saya job hi hunar mila who yahaaN apne lafzoN meiN aapke saath takseem kerna chahta hooN….
Hindi ki kavita ho ya Urdu ki nazm ..dono per laagu hoti hai…
Iss lekh se kavita ke bare me sandes maatra hi dena chahooNga….jo bhi is se faayda uthhana chahe uthha sakta hai…isme likhe tat.v koi aise tat.tv nahiN jo kitaboN ya pothhiyoN me mil sakeiN….ye lekh bas apne jeevan ki yatra se prerit ho..our beete lamhoN se prapt tatvoN ka Gyaan bhar hai….Koi jaroori nahiN aap is se ang-rath hoN
Ya aap isey apni shaily meiN dhaaleiN….
Jo Achha lage usey apna lo.Jo bura lege usey jaane do…..
Kavita kya hai
KAvita ki shuruaat kya honi chahiye..
Kavita kaise aage badni chahiye
Usme kon se tatv shaamil hone chahiye
Kavita ka roop kya hona chahiye..
Kavita kaise khatam honi chahiye
Uska saar kya hona chahiye..
Bahoot si baate haiN jo hamaare Zehen ko pareshaan kerti haiN…..in batoN ko agar hum dhyaan se padeNge toh Yaqeenan kutchh prapt kerne ki koshish kareNge…..

Sabse pehle toh yahi kehna chahooNga k…kavita likhna koi aasaan kaarya nahiN hai.
Our kutchh lines ko shabdoN meiN dhal dena hi bas kavita ya nazm nahiN hai….
Iske bhi apne kutchh usool haiN…bina usooloN meiN likhi koi bhi tehreer kavita nahi ho sakti…ye usool kutch buniyaadi haiN..our kutchh be-bunyaadi..our kutchh kavitakaaroN/urdudaanoN ne hi baanye haiN…

Kavita mehaz lafzoN ka pulinda nahiN hai……

KavitaayeiN/nazmeiN..hamaare kavya bhaag meiN aate haiN………

Hamarii shailly prabhaav shaali ho, drishya Gudgudaane waale hoN..ya Krodh, Harsh, utsaah aadi bhaaavoN meiN hoN..man ke bhaavoN ko vyakt kerne ki shakti shaamil ho..
Jo waakya aapke mann ke bhaav ko spasht na ker sake who kavita meiN shaamil hone laayak nahiN hota….

Jitne kam shabdoN meiN bhaav vyakt kiye jaayeiN wahi Kavita ke swaroop ko shringaarit kerte haiN….

Ye ek aisi Vidha hai..jis se hum aapne ya doosroN k bhaavoN ko taraNgit ker doosroN ko suna sakte haiN….ye vidha se hu daya, prem..utsaah bhaiy(dar) vismai, shaanti tatha waatsalya bhaav aadi utpann kerke bata sakte haiN….

Kavita ke liye zaroori hai..ke us me Rass shamil ho..rass ka matlab jise padne se aanand ki prapti ho…isey hum shravya-kaavya bhi keh sakte haiN….lekin ye bhi teen type ke hote haiN….Gadhya, padhya our chappu..


Hamaare kaam ke liye sirf Padhya hi hai….

Jo RAchna shabdoN meiN baaNdh ker likhi jaaye our gaayii ja sake usey padhya ki parisbasha meiN rakhte haiN….

Ab kavitaaoN ki shreni kya haiN..ye jaan lena bhi jaroori hai….bahoot se kavigan bahoot achha likhte haiN…lein who ye nahiN jaante ke unki kavita kis shreni meiN aati hai..unki kavitaaOn ka kya bhaav hai…

Aisi KavitaayeiN ya rachnaayeiN jo swatantra(indipendent) hoti haiN, kisi kahaani se sambandit nahiN hoti Muktak kehlaati haiN….

Kai haamre saathi our lekhak…Gadhya our padhya ka mishran likhte haiN…woh chappu ki shreni meiN aate haiN..unhe hum kavita/nazm ka naam nahiN de sakte….

Ab kutchh aisi baate jo hamaari kavita ko shriNgaarit kerti haiN….

KAvita kahaaNi ka roop nahiN honi chahiye….
Kavita ki shuraat aisi honi chahiye ke reader usey bandd sa jaaye…
Kavita ka Unwaan aakarshit hona chahiye…jo reader ko padne ke liye uksa de….
Apne bhaav jitney kam shabdoN meiN de sako kavita ki value utni baRh jaatihai..
Lambi kavita ek kamzore ouzaar hai….is se yahi praptit hota hai ke who apni baat kam shabdoN meiN hastaantrit nahi ker sakta…iska matlab ye nahiN ke who kavita nahiN?..par kahaaNi-numa kavita kabhi bhi award lene yogya nahiN hoti….

Kavita ko ache se shriNgaarit kerna ho…toh chhand/alankaar use kerne chahiye….

Toh sabse Zaroori baat Kavita meiN ab tak yahi hui ke….

Kam shaboN meiN Ziyada our Gehri baat…….

Kavita Saral honi chahiye
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ShabdoN ka chayan saral our sarthak ho...mushqil shabd..shrotaoN ko apni taraf aakarshit nahiN kerti...

HameiN aise shabdoN ka istemaal kerna chahiye jo readers ko samajhne meiN saral hoN...apni kitaabi hindi ya apne ko achha gyata saabit kerne ke chakker meiN Kavita ka marm na kho deiN...
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Kavita Ki Safalta
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Kavita tab poorn hoti hai---- jab kalam-kaar ----jo bhi message apni kavita ke maadhyam se dena chahta hai----woh usi roop meiN shrotaaoN tak pahooNche......

Aisa nahiN ke jo aap kehna chahte haiN woh sirf aap hi samajh rahe hoN

likhne ke baad usey ..shrota ki hasiat se zaroor avlokan kareiN

VyaNjan
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Dosto "Suibject vishesh" boring na ho..beech-beech meiN kutchh kavita ki pari-paati bhi shuru ker di jaaye toh achha hai.......


Kavita ki jaan kavita meiN chhupe bhaav per munassar hota hai.....seedhe saadhe lafzoN meiN likhi gayii kavita deergayu nahiN hoti...kutchh samay ke baad lupt hone lagti hai...

Seedhe-saadhe lafz means....direct quoting.....

Jaise..


Dhobi ne Gadhe per
Wazen laad diya
Namak tha usme
Meri moorkhta toh dekho
usey
neher ke raaste dhaal diya

Indirect quoting......

ya phir hum yuN kaheiN
In GadhoN ke demaag meiN kutchh baith.ta hi nahN k....


Pehle waale meiN 'Gadhe' shabd ka arth ek pashu vishesh se hai...

Our doosre sentence meiN 'Gadhe' shabd se arth 'Moorkh' liya gaya hai....
Metaphorics use kerne ki kala agar shamil ho toh sone meiN suhaga ho jata hai...


Ab isi per ek doosra udhaarhran hai ..jana mana sentence.....

Abla jeevan ! haai tumhaari yahi kahaani
Aanchal me hai dood aakhoN me paani.

yahaan PER AAP DEKHIYE...shabdoN ka meaning kaise...asal meaning ko darshaate hue alag sa meaning liye hue hai.....jaise khaane Vyanjan hoN toh kitna swaad ata hai..isi prakaar...kavita meiN vyanjan daal diye jaayeiN toh dekhiye inka prabhaav....

ooper likhe Vyangaarth ka matlab toh dekhiye....

Hey naari jeevan...Tumhaari katha ka sar yahi hai k tumhaari chhati meiN dood our ankhoN meiN aansoo rehte haiN ! YahaN dood se vyangaarth hai 'vaatsalya' our aankhoN meiN paani se matlab hai ki vireh/vichhoh/separation aadi se utpann hone waali 'karun' awastha !...
Ab ye sab Vyanjan shakti dwara hi utpann hua....

Rass
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Ek bahoot hi zaroori baat..KaviganoN ke liye..Jo maiN pehle bhi ooper keh chuka hooN...Achhe kalam-kaar jinki kavitaayeiN logoN ko padne meiN achhi lagti haiN...Un lekhakoN se bhi agar poocha jaaye ki aap itna sunder likhte haiN....aapka bhaav kya hai...kin bhaavoN ko vyakt kerne meiN tumeh achha lagta hai.....ya phir kin bhaavoN ko aap vyakt kerne meiN aaraam mehsoos hota hai....
Toh woh bataane meiN asmarth ho jaate haiN....
KyuN?
Sirf is liye ke woh logoN ko nahiN parte....bhaavoN ko nahiN samajhte....sirf likhna our post ker dena.....
Kavita sirf..likhna our post ker dena bhar hi nahiN hai.....
Kavita jab mukhrit hoti hai..toh woh aapka vyakti.tv samete hue hoti hai....woh batati hai ke aapka character kya hai....aapka wazood kya hai....aapke istemaal kiye gaye shabd aapki respect ko jhalkaate haiN....
Kavita kabhi bhi post kerne ke liye nahiN likhni chahiye......Kavita toh jab apna aakaar khud banaaye toh hi patal per aani chahiye....
oh hum baat ker rahe the..k rass kya hota hai? our ek vyakti vishesh kis ras meiN likhta hai usey maloom hona chahiye....
Agar aap kisi manch per apna kavita paath kerne ke ja rahe hoN..toh koi poochh baithhe..ki tum toh naye ho...kis rass meiN maharath hai ?..toh aapko maloom hona chahiye ke aap kis vidha ke kavi haiN.....
For example...
Kaka hathrasi...hasya kavi ke liye mash-hoor maane gaye haiN.....
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Rass ko samjhaane liye mere paas ek chhota sa example hai.......

Jab hum koi naatak ya film dekhte haiN ya koi novel padte haiN.toh hum apne ko bhool ker kutchh paatroN ke liye vishesh roochi rakhne lagte haiN...hum zaroor kisi ek ki taraf ho jana chahte haiN...kis ki jeet our kisi ki haar ke liye lalaait ho jaate haiN.....unke sukh-dukh ke saath ban jaate haiN....our aisa anubhav kerte haiN jaise ye sab hamare jeevan se sambadit haiN...aisi awastha meiN hum talleen hoker ek prakaar ke anand-vishesh ka anubhav kerte haiN..isi anand-vishesh ko rass kehte haiN....


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Kutchh hint dubara repeat kerne zaroori haiN...
I Repeat
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kavita aisa madhyam hai, jisse hum doosro tak apne mann ki baat pahuncha sakte hai. kavita se kavi ki aatma ki sunderta ka pata chalta hai. vah itni gahri chees hai ki iska arth poori tarah se samajhna namumkin hai....

Ek our baat....

Agar kavita meiN bhavnaiye na hoN toh Kavita sirf tukhbandhi reh jati hein.
Our tukbandi kabhi kavita nahiN hoti.....isliye tukbandi ko kavita samajh ker khush-fehmi meiN nahiN rehna chahiye...kavita ke marm meiN jhaaNkne ki zaroorat hai.....


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'Bhaav'/Rass
Definite Emotions.....isthaayii bhaav

Jo emotions/bhaav hamare heart meiN ya dil meiN seed/beej roop se chhupe hote haiN...our woh bhaav/emotions kisi Jagah ya waqt ko dekh ker prakat ho jaate haiN unhe hum isthaayii bhaav kehte haiN....

Ab ye bhaavoN ke type/prakaar dekhiye......

1.Rati/prem/shriNgaar rass
2. Hraas/hasya rass
3. Utsaah/veer rass
4. Ghrinaa/veebhats rass
5. Vairagya/shaant rass
6. Shok/karun rass
7. krodh/roudra rass
8. bhai9dar0/bhayanak rass
9. vismai/adhbhut rass
10. watsalya/waatsai rass

Ab in rassoN meiN...aap kis meiN aate haiN..ye aapko apni rachnaoN se maloom ho jaayega....

InmeiN se koi bhi bhaav agar aapmeiN jaaga hua hai.....our kutchh likhte waqt woh jaga hua bhaav agar teevra ho jaaye....toh wahi aapka bhaav hai....

iska matlab ye kataii nahiN ke aap baaki bhaav ke kavi nahiN haiN.....har insaan ke man meiN alag alag samay meiN alag alga bhaav bhi aa sakte haiN..per woh kutch our laghu waqt ke liye hi aate haiN......uske baad us insaan meiN wahi isthaayii bhaavka sanchaar hone lagta hai......

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Ooper rassoN ke baare meiN detail dene ki maiN zaroorat nahiN samajhta..kyu k saanketik shabd hi apne aap meiN arth liye jue haiN...Phir bhi shanka ho toh pooch sakte haiN---------

Kavita ka swaroop
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Kavita ka swarop nirbhar kerta hai uski soundaryata par !
Woh Munassar hoti hai...unmeiN istemaal hone waale ....

ChhaNd our Alankaar per


Our ab ye ChhaNd our Alankaar kya hote haiN in per hum ek chhoti tippani dena chaheNge....Kyu ke iss par charcha kerna ek khand-kavya ikhne ke baraber ai...

Jin logoN ne hindi meiN is per Gyaaan liya hai unke liye sehaz hai kavita meiN soundarya laana...lekin iska ye matlab kataii nahiN ke doosre log iske kaabil naiN....

Wese toh kavita har jan ke mann meiN hi mukhrit hoti hai.....

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Alankaar
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AlaNkaar..........jis se kavya i.e kavita, nazm , Ghazal aadi ka shriNgaar hota hai usey alankaar kehte haiN.....

Shabd our arth hamaari kavita ke shareer haiN
Rass iski aatma hai..........

KavioN our hindi ke gyataoN ne...alankaar ko isliye do bhagoN meiN baanta hai

1. Shabd-alankaar
2. Arth-Alankaar

1.----Hum hameshaa apni kavita meiN achhe shabdoN ki taalash meiN hote haiN...kyu ke hamari kavita ka soundarya baRhe...

Iss jagah prayewaachi shabdoN ka paryog zaroori ho jata hai....metaphorics kavita ki jaan hote haiN.....


2----JahaaN shadoN se chamatkaar na ho sake..wahaaN arth se usey poora kiya ja sakta hai.....

Jaise...

Sabne achanak Vaishya ki our dekha........

IsmeiN Gehra arth chhipa hai.....apni agli line tak isme vismai bhodhh chhhipa hai....

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ChhaNd Preechai
Chhand ke baare meiN ek sankshipt pareechai
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Dosto ye bhaag.....ChhaNd pareechai ka hai.....jo kavita/nazm/Ghazal ke liye ahem hai..iske bina kavita adhoori hai....agar ye nahin//TOH SAMJHIYE TEHREER KI JAAN HI NAHIn.........

hAR INSAAN KABHI NA KABHI AKELE HONE PER gUN-GUNATA HAI our usme tanmai hoker anand mehsoos kerta hai.....is tarah Gungunaate hue achanak usey ek lai(behr) ka anubhav hota hai jo ander se hi uske sun ne ke swaad meiN hota hai....usmeiN kai meethe shabd shaamil hoker apne aap mann se nikalne shuru ho jaate haiN....ek leher se nikalne lagti hai

Ab usme lai ke saath GAti our yati shamil hone lagti hai...

Gati ko aap samjh sakte haiN..jab hum gaate haiN...toh usmeiN suvidha ke anusaar ek nishchit gati per rukna ya morh dena....jis se gaayan ki suvidha bani rahe our shringaar bhi kaayam rahe....kaanoN ko achha bhi prateet ho...is se gaayan meiN madhurta aa jaati hai.....

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Hum jo bhi jaane anjane meiN...kavita nazm ya Ghazal Geet likh jaate haiN..ya Gunguna jaate haiN....us sab meiN chaNdoN ka hi maiN role hota hai..agar hum inhe achhi tarah samajh leiN toh samjhiye.....aap achhe kavioN ke shreni meiN apne aap ko khaRha paa sakte haiN......

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hamari kavitaoN meiN ya GhazloN meiN behr ka kya role hai..In chhandoN dwara samjhaane ki poori koshish kerooNga....Shayad meiN samjhaane meiN kaamyaab ho sakooN......

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Ab yahaaN se hamara asli saffur shuru Hota hai.............


Beh'r kya hai...............Ya yuN kahiye ChahNd kya hai

Aapne suna hoga apne Ghar meiN jab aap Radio ..'On' kerte haiN......toh ek sureeli awaaz aati hai....

Ab aap Mommad rafi dwara Gaya shakeel badayuni ka chhand baddh kiya nagma suniye....

Ye ChhaNdh-badhh matlab...beh'r meiN prastut kiya hua.......

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Ek sachha kavi
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Dosto Gyan ke saath saath..beech beech meiN mahoul halka kerne ke liye..kutchh zaroori baateiN haiN..unnhe samajhna bhi zaroori hai......

Gur Shishya Relationship


YahaaN sabhi lekhak haiN..koi bahoot achha likhta hai our achha keh leta hai...our kutchh naye haiN jo abhi likhne ki koshish meiN haiN...our kutchh aise haiN...jo likhte toh bahoot haiN per sach meiN woh likhte kutchh bhi nahiN....sach baat toh ye hai..ki unhe maloom hi nahiN ke woh kya likh rahe haiN.......

Doosri baat.....kavi hameshaaN dil se hota hai...kehne se kabhi koi kavi nahiN ban sakta....suna hoga..'honhaar-birbaan ke hot cheekne paat'......ek achha kavi khud hi apne lekhan se pehchaan liya jata hai....our jo chori ker ke likhta hai woh bhi do ya chaar postings ke baad pehchaan liya jata ha...kyu k kavita ke bhaav hi bata dete haiN..k ye bhaav us vyakti vishesh ke hai ya nahiN...bhale hi kisi ne unhe toka na ho....Our jo insaan Chori ki rachna likhta hai..woh Zindagii meiN kabhi kavi ki paribasha meiN bhi nahiN aa sakta ....Khuda unke apne bhaavoN ko bhi Gart ker deta hai....our Jo ye Ghinouna karya kerte haiN...woh ander se ye sab jaan jaate haiN....ke ye kala unmeiN smapt ho chali hai......

Teesri baat.....Jo bhi lekhak jab is vidha ki our aakarshit hota hai...toh koi na koi wazeh zaroor hoti hai......lekhak jo bhi bana ye taraNg usmeiN pehle se hi mouzood hota hai tabhi woh kavitaoN ko padta hai our anand leta hai.........Contd

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Naya lekhak Pehle doosroN ki kavita ko padta hai...phir anandit ho...khud koshish kerta hai kutchh likhne ki....Jo lekhak apne Guru ko pehchaan deta hai....woh bahoot jaldi agrasar hota hai....our jo insaan Guru ka bhi Gyan khud ka Gyaan batata hai..yaane jis se seekha..usi ka Guru ban.ne ki koshish kerta hai...woh apne Gyan ko wahiN rok leta hai...Guru hameshaaN apne shishya ki aakaanshaoN ko aage baRhata hai....
Our Bin Guru Gati na koi
Jinka koi Guru nahiN..woh sach maaino meiN poori Gyaan shakti arz nahiN ker paate....
Aap jiz tarah se labhaaNvit hote hoN...us per nat-mastak hona chahiye....unko batana chahiye our man.na chahiye ke usne unse ye sab seekha....jaise Elavya ne Dronacharya se chhup ker dekha lekin...Guru Dronacharya ko hi mana.............
lekhan ek pooja hai...iski pooja kerni chahiye....jab bhi hum kalam uthaayeiN..usey nat-mastak ho apne Guru ko yaad ker lekhan shuru kerna chahiye....phir dekho..aap kahaaN se kahaaN pahooNchte hai.....VicharoN ka ambaar apke aage se hota hua kalam ki raah pahoonchega....
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ChhaNd/Beh'r kya hai

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Ab dhyaan rahe ..apni vidha ko naya ayaam dene ke liye iss lessoN ko samajh lena bahoot zaroori hai ...aisi baateiN aapko kisi bhi kitaab meiN nazer nahiN aayeNgii...
Our maiN apne paathkoN se ye phir kehna chahooNga....iss mou'zuu per maiN jo bhi likh raha huN ye meri apni raai hai...aap isey achha samjheiN toh apna sakte haiN..Verna aap isey ignore ker sakte haiN....
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Chhand sambandi paribasha....

Matra----Matra kya hoti hai

Ek mool swar ke uchharan meiN jitna samay lagta hai usey matra kehte haiN !!

Dosto..aap ye socheNge..k matra ko yahaaaN samjhane ki kya zaroorat mehsoos hone lagi.....?

Yahi swar haiN jinki wazeh se ya yu kaheiN jin per hamari kavita ya Padhya lekhan munassar hai......
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Ab samay ke hisaab se dekha jaaye...toh
laghu swar ki ek(one) matra hui
Our
Deerg swar ki do (two) matra hui.
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Ab 'araam' shabd meiN

a= 1 ek matra
raa= meiN 2 matra
m= meiN 1matra hui

ab hum aisa keh sakte haiN ek-maatrik varn ko 'laghu' kehte haiN
Deerg matra waale varn ko 'Guru' kehte haiN
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Shayad yahaaN tak aap samajh gaye hoNge......

Phir bhi maiN ek our koshish kerta hooN ki kisi Song ko nazer rakh aapko samjha sakooN.......

Ek song aapne suna hoga......

Chalo ik bar phir se ajnabi ban jaayeiN hum dono

ab is line ko hum VarnoN ko matra se dekte hai.....

Ch=1
lo=2
ik=2
baa=2
r=1
phir=2
se=2
aj=2
na=1
bhi=2
ban=2
jaa=2
ye=1
hum=2
do=2
no=2

ab ye achhand/beh'r yuN hui

1222 1222 1222 1222

jab poora senetence likha jata hai toh do ekmaatrik swar mil ker laghu se Guru ho jaate haiN... ban meiN b=1 our n=1...ye dono milker Guru ho gaye....

aj ke liye shayad itna kaafi hai..iski khud practice kerne ki koshish kereiN

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आज एक प्रश्न और याद आया जो यहाँ बताना चाहूँगा ..
ये शब्द  "और" को कैसे break करते हैं |

mujhe bhi beginning meiN is word ko break kerne meiN kafi confusion rahi hai .. kyunke bolne meiN iska weight 21 lagta hai .. lekin isse aik long syllable hi maana jaata hai 

"au"r eik aisa word hai,jis ki taqtii flexible hai aur ise 'ur' aur 'aur 'donon tarah bol sakte hain.
Contd........

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नीचे के लिंक पर क्लिक कीजिये और उस पर जाइए .....

1.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --१
1.a
शिल्प-ज्ञान -1 a
2.ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --2 ........नज़्म और ग़ज़ल
3.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --3
4.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --4 ----कविता का श्रृंगार
5.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --५ .....दोहा क्या है ?
6.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --6
7.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --7
8.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान --8
9.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान - 9
10.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान - 10
11.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान - 11
12.
ग़ज़ल शिल्प ज्ञान - 12